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Golf Courses Turf grasses Fertilization

Golf Courses Turf grasses Fertilization

1. Nutrient Requirement of Golf Courses Turf grasses

Turf grasses require at least 16 nutrients for normal growth and development. Some nutrients (dinh dưỡng) are needed in large amounts, such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, in medium amounts such as calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Other nutrients only in small quantity  such as iron, manganese, zinc, boron, copper and molybdenum.

Table 1 lists the 16 essential nutrients, the form in which grass plants are able to digest and approximate amounts found in healthy turf.

 


Table 1: The essentials turf grass nutrients.

Nutrient

Symbol

Available form (s)

Sufficiency range

Carbon

C

CO2

44%

Hydrogen

H

H2O

6%

Oxygen

O

O2, H2O

44%

Nitrogen

N

NO3-;  NH4+ N

2,75- 4,2%

Phosphorous

P

H3PO4;

0,3- 0,55%

Potassium

K

K+

1,0 – 2,5%

Calcium

Ca

Ca2+

0,5 – 1,26%

Magnesium

Mg

Mg+

0,2 – 0,6%

Sulfur

S

S2-

0,2- 0,46%

Iron

Fe

Fe2+, Fe3+

35-100 ppm

Manganese

Mn

Mn2+

25-150 ppm

Zinc

Zn

Zn2+, Zn(OH)­­2

20-55 ppm

Boron

B

B(OH)­­3

10-60 ppm

Copper

Cu

Cu+. Cu2+

5-20 ppm

Molybdenum

Mo

MoO4+

0,15-0,5 ppm

Chlorine

Cl

Cl-

Not known

Source : Turf grass Fertilization: A basic Guide for professional Turfgrass Manager. Prepared by PETER LANDSCHOOT, Professor of Turf grass Sciences, 2001. Penn State. Website : http://cropsoil.psu.edu/turf/extension/factsheets/turfgrass-fertilization.pdf/view 

 

Three of the sixteen needed nutrients in largest amounts are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Grass receives these nutrients from air, water and fertilizers with the activation of microorganisms and photosynthesis

Each of the 16 essential nutrients has specific roles in turf grass development. Some nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, may have significant impact on grass activities whereas others may only activate a few chemical reactions. Regardless of how large a role each nutrient plays, all are needed for the plants to develop normally. The functions of the essential minerals can be found in "Plant nutrient management and AgroDream fertilizer”.

Golf courses have traditionally been thought of as environmentally sound landscapes, preserving green spaces and otherwise could have developed and providing a recreational opportunity for nearby residents. In recent years, however, the public has become increasingly alarmed and concerned with chemical use and pollution of surface and groundwater. To the public, expensive areas of turf such as golf courses seem to receive an unusually large amount of fertilizers and pesticides. Tees and greens are often highly modified sandy soils that drain very easy, are highly irrigated and do not retain nutrients. With today’s trend toward lower nitrogen use rates and the use of organic products as an attractive alternative to the synthetic fertilizers. Some environmental groups want a total elimination of chemical fertilizer use.

To some degree, going organic is a return to how superintendents managed their fairways, greens and tees at the turn of the 20th century, well before effective fertilizers and pesticides developed. Compost from clippings and leaves and animal excrement was used to enrich soil of golf courses and reduce thatch. Many organic fertilizers used currently contains ingredients such as liquid seaweed, fish fertilizers which often mixed with elements such as iron, boron, copper, zinc.

 

2.      Fertilizers  Ước mơ nhà nông – AGRODREAM (AG)

AGRODREAMs contain seaweed, fish and animal skin, potent macro and micronutrient sources. Many of the nutrients are in chelated form which holds them in reserve until needed. Turf grasses get the nutrients they need when they need them.

AGRODREAMs supply many  other nutrients as organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and proteins. These water insoluble compounds are held in the soil until microbes and other organisms digest them.

There are two products of AGRODREAMs that can be used for maintaining healthy turf grass.

-       AGRODREAM “D” (Ước mơ nhà nông “D”) made from seaweed and animal skin.

-       AGRODREAM ‘M” (Ước mơ nhà nông “M”) made from seaweed, sea fish and animal skin.

Benefits of AGRODREAMs.

-       Is a slow release product, low leaching and no pollution nutrients.

-       Helps restore soils to their natural nutrient balance, encouraging soil microbes (vi sinh vật ) and earthworms to repopulate the soil which increases nutrient cycling and loosens soil structure.

-       Helps reduce or eliminate the use of chemical based fertilizers and other soil amendments.

-       Does not burning, not damage turf grass.

-       It’s oil content also reduces leaching of nutrients.

-       Can save water usage.

-       Easy to apply and can use with other products (fungicides, growth regulators etc.) making any application flexible.

-       Is produced through low temperature enzymatic hydrolysis. Fish odor is reduced and quickly dissipates.

3.      Application rates for Golf Courses(in Normal Environmental Conditions)

a)Tees and Greens

- Use AGRODREAM “D”

- Dilution of Product: 1/50 (1 part of fertilizer, 50 parts of water)

- Application frequency: 7-14 days intervals.

- Spray Application Volume: 20 liters/hectare.

            b) Fairways.

- Use AGRODREAM “M”

- Dilution of Product: 1/50 (1 part of fertilizer, 50 parts of water)

- Application frequency: 14-21 days intervals.

- Spray Application Volume: 20 -30 liters/ha.

C) Estimated Average Usage for 18-Hole Golf Course

The average 18 hole course has approximately 20.000 m2 of Tees and Greens (2 hectares) and 160.000 m2 of Fairways (16 hectares).

Tees, Green:

-          2 hectares x 20 liters rate = 40 liters/ application (spraying)

-          Application frequency: Every 7 days = 4 times/month = 160 liters.

-          Application frequency: Every 14 days = 2 times/month = 80 liters.

-          For application frequency: Every 7 days: 

            12 months X 160 liters = 1,920 liters

-          .For application frequency: Every 14 days: 

            12 months X 80 liters = 960 liters

-          Total Estimated Liters for Tees and Greens of AGRODREAM “D” for one year is:  960 – 1,920 liters.

Fairways:

-          16 hectares x 20 liters rate = 320 liters/ application (spraying)

-          Application frequency: Every 14 days = 26 times/year = 26 applications X 320 liters = 8,320 liters.

-          Application frequency: Every 21 days = 17 times/year = 17 applications X 320 liters = 5,440 liters.

-          Total Estimated Liters for Fairways of AGRODREAM “M” for one year is:  5,440 – 8,320 liters.

Total Estimated liters for Entire Golf Course: 6,400 – 10,340 liters

 

Applications Notes for AG

-       AG must be well stirred prior to dilution and/or mixing with other products.

-       Do not store diluted AG in a sealed container or sprayer for more than a day, or it will then release bad smell.

-       No single turf grass fertilizer program is ideal for golf courses. The amounts and the time of applications depend on many factors, including grass species, soil type, management practices, how the turf is used etc.

-       For an optimal fertilizer program, it is necessary to analise the soil's nutrition contents , which can provide guidelines for the quantity of AG needed and time frame .

     For more information on our AGRODREAM line of products visit us at:

                    http://uocmonhanong.com/

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Tin mới hơn
AGGRAND CROPS GUIDE (10/ 07/ 2013)
AGGRAND THE GARDENING GUIDE (10/ 07/ 2013)
Maxicrop’s guide to Mulching (16/ 07/ 2013)

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